Creating Scenes

 

Scenes contain the objects of your game. They can be used to create a main menu, individual levels, and anything else. Think of each unique Scene file as a unique level. In each Scene, you will place your environments, obstacles, and decorations, essentially designing and building your game in pieces.

Instancing Prefabs

Use the method described in the last section to create a Prefab. You can also read more details about Prefabs here. Once you’ve created a Prefab, you can quickly and easily make copies of the Prefab, called an Instance. To create an instance of any Prefab, drag the Prefab from the Project View to the Hierarchy or Scene View. Now you have a unique instance of your Prefab to position and tweak as you like.

Adding Component & Scripts

When you have a Prefab or any GameObject highlighted, you can add additional functionality to it by using Components. Scripts are a type of Component. To add a Component, just highlight your GameObject and select a Component from the Component menu. You will then see the Component appear in the Inspector of the GameObject. Scripts are also contained in the Component menu by default.

If adding a Component breaks the GameObject’s connection to its Prefab, you can always use GameObject->Apply Changes to Prefab from the menu to re-establish the link.

Placing GameObjects

Once your GameObject is in the scene, you can use the Transform Tools to position it wherever you like. Additionally, you can use the Transform values in the Inspector to fine-tune placement and rotation. Please view the Transform Component page for more information about positioning and rotating GameObjects.

Working with Cameras

Cameras are the eyes of your game. Everything the player will see while playing is through one or more cameras. You can position, rotate, and parent cameras just like any other GameObject. A camera is just a GameObject with a Camera Component attached to it. Therefore it can do anything a regular GameObject can do, and then some camera-specific functions too. There are also some helpful Camera scripts that are installed with the Scripts package. The Scripts package can be included when you create a new project, or you can use the Assets->Import Package… menu. The scripts that you import can be found in Components->Camera-Control from the menu. There are some additional aspects to cameras which will be good to understand. To read about cameras, view the Camera component page.

Lights

Except for some very few cases, you will always need to add Lights to your scene. There are three different types of lights, and all of them behave a little differently from each other. The important thing is that they add atmosphere and ambience to your game. Different lighting can completely change the mood of your game, and using lights effectively will be an important subject to learn. To read about the different lights.

Publishing Builds

 

At any time while you are creating your game, you might want to see how it looks when you build and run it outside of the editor as a standalone or web player. This section will explain how to access the Build Settings and how to create different builds of your games.

File->Build Settings… is the menu item to access the Build Settings window. It pops up an editable list of the scenes that will be included when you build your game.

build settings in unity3d:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Build Settings window

The first time you view this window in a project, it will appear blank. If you build your game while this list is blank, only the currently open scene will be included in the build. If you want to quickly build a test player with only one scene file, just build a player with a blank scene list.

It is easy to add scene files to the list for multi-scene builds. There are two ways to add them. The first way is to click the Add Current button. You will see the currently open scene appear in the list. The second way to add scene files is to drag them from the Project View to the list.

At this point, notice that each of your scenes has a different index value. Scene 0 is the first scene that will be loaded when you build the game. When you want to load a new scene, use Application.LoadLevel() inside your scripts.

If you’ve added more than one scene file and want to rearrange them, simply click and drag the scenes on the list above or below others until you have them in the desired order.

If you want to remove a scene from the list, click to highlight the scene and press Command-Delete. The scene will disappear from the list and will not be included in the build.

When you are ready to publish your build, select a Platform and make sure that the Unity logo is next to the platform; if its not then click in the Switch Platform button to let Unity know which platform you want to build for. Finally press the Build button. You will be able to select a name and location for the game using a standard Save dialog. When you click Save, Unity builds your game pronto. It’s that simple. If you are unsure where to save your built game to, consider saving it into the projects root folder. You cannot save the build into the Assets folder.

Enabling the Development Build checkbox on a player will enable Profiler functionality and also make the Autoconnect Profiler and Script Debugging options available.

Web Player Streaming

Streaming Web Players allow your Web Player games to begin playing as soon as Scene 0 is finished loading. If you have a game with 10 levels, it doesn’t make much sense to force the player to wait and download all assets for levels 2–10 before they can start playing level 1. When you publish a Streaming Web Player, the assets that must be downloaded will be sequenced in the order of the Scene file they appear in. As soon as all assets contained in Scene 0 are finished downloading, the Web Player will begin playing.

Put simply, Streaming Web Players will get players playing your game faster than ever.

The only thing you need to worry about is checking to make sure that the next level you want to load is finished streaming before you load it.

Normally, in a non-streamed player, you use the following code to load a level:

Application.LoadLevel(“levelName”);

In a Streaming Web Player, you must first check that the level is finished streaming. This is done through the CanStreamedLevelBeLoaded() function. This is how it works:

var levelToLoad = 1;

function LoadNewLevel () {
    if (Application.CanStreamedLevelBeLoaded (levelToLoad)) {
        Application.LoadLevel (levelToLoad);
    }
}


If you would like to display the level streaming progress to the player, for a loading bar or other representation, you can read the progress by accessing GetStreamProgressForLevel().

Offline webplayer deployment

If the Offline Deployment option is enabled for a webplayer then the UnityObject.js file (used to interface the player with the host page) will be placed alongside the player during the build. This enables the player to work with the local script file even when there is no network connection; normally, UnityObject.js is downloaded from Unity’s webserver so as to make use of the latest version.

Building standalone players

With Unity you can build standalone applications for Windows, Mac and Linux. It’s simply a matter of choosing the build target in the build settings dialog, and hitting the ‘Build’ button. When building standalone players, the resulting files will vary depending on the build target. On Windows an executable file (.exe) will be built, along with a Data folder which contains all the resources for your application. On Mac an app bundle will be built, containing the file needed to run the application, as well as the resources.

Distributing your standalone on Mac is just to provide the app bundle (everything is packed in there). On Windows you need to provide both the .exe file and the Data folder for others to run it. Think of it like this: Other people must have the same files on their computer, as the resulting files that Unity builds for you, in order to run your game.

Inside the build process

The building process will place a blank copy of the built game application wherever you specify. Then it will work through the scene list in the build settings, open them in the editor one at a time, optimize them, and integrate them into the application package. It will also calculate all the assets that are required by the included scenes and store that data in a separate file within the application package.

  • Any GameObject in a scene that is tagged with ‘EditorOnly’ will be not be included in the published build. This is useful for debugging scripts that don’t need to be included in the final game.
  • When a new level loads, all the objects in the previous level are destroyed. To prevent this, use DontDestroyOnLoad() on any objects you don’t want destroyed. This is most commonly used for keeping music playing while loading a level, or for game controller scripts which keep game state and progress.
  • After the loading of a new level is finished, the message: OnLevelWasLoaded() will be sent to all active game objects.
  • For more information on how to best create a game with multiple scenes, for instance a main menu, a high-score screen, and actual game levels, check our Tutorials.

Preloading

Published builds automatically preload all assets in a scene when the scene loads. The exception to this rule is scene 0. This is because the first scene is usually a splashscreen, which you want to display as quickly as possible.

To make sure all your content is preloaded, you can create an empty scene which calls Application.LoadLevel(1). In the build settings make this empty scene’s index 0. All subsequent levels will be preloaded.

You’re ready to build games

By now, you have learned how to use Unity’s interface, how to use assets, how to create scenes, and how to publish your builds. There is nothing stopping you from creating the game of your dreams. You’ll certainly learn much more along the way, and we’re here to help.

To learn more about constructing game levels, see the section on Building Scenes.

To learn more about Scripting, see the Scripting Section.

To learn more about creating Art assets, see the Assets section of the manual.

To interact with the community of Unity users and developers, visit the Unity Forums. You can ask questions, share projects, build a team, anything you want to do. Definitely visit the forums at least once, because we want to see the amazing games that you make.

Unity3d tutorials